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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is a province located on the easternmost edge of Canada. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland and the mainland Labrador, which are separated by the Strait of Belle Isle. With a population of approximately 520,000 people, it is the most easterly province and has a rich cultural heritage. Newfoundland and Labrador is known for its stunning natural landscapes, including rugged coastlines, fjords, and icebergs. The province has a diverse economy, with industries such as fishing, oil and gas, mining, and tourism playing significant roles. St. John’s, the capital city, is a vibrant hub for arts, culture, and education. Newfoundland and Labrador also boasts unique wildlife, including puffins, whales, and caribou, making it a popular destination for outdoor enthusiasts and nature lovers.

The Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador, located on the easternmost edge of Canada, is a province known for its rugged beauty, breathtaking landscapes, and rich history. With a total area of approximately 405,720 square kilometers, it is the tenth largest province in the country. Let’s delve into the diverse geography that makes this province a truly remarkable place.

The Great Northern Peninsula

Starting our exploration in the north, we find the Great Northern Peninsula stretching out like a proud sentinel into the Atlantic Ocean. This region is characterized by towering cliffs that plunge dramatically into the icy waters below. The rugged coastline is home to numerous fjords and bays, providing a picturesque setting for those seeking adventure or simply a moment of tranquility. One cannot help but be captivated by the awe-inspiring beauty of places like L’Anse aux Meadows, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the only authenticated Norse settlement in North America.

Gros Morne National Park

Continuing our journey southward, we stumble upon one of Newfoundland and Labrador’s most iconic landmarks: Gros Morne National Park. This UNESCO World Heritage Site is a playground for outdoor enthusiasts and nature lovers alike. The park boasts towering mountain ranges, pristine lakes, and dense forests that seem to stretch on forever. Hiking trails wind their way through ancient rock formations, offering breathtaking views of the park’s centerpiece, the Tablelands. These striking red-hued mountains were formed by tectonic plate collisions millions of years ago and provide a unique glimpse into our planet’s geological history.

Did you know? The Tablelands in Gros Morne National Park are composed of peridotite, a type of rock usually found in Earth’s mantle, making it an incredibly rare geological feature.

The Avalon Peninsula

Moving southeast, we reach the Avalon Peninsula, home to the province’s capital city, St. John’s. This region is known for its stunning coastal cliffs, picturesque fishing villages, and vibrant culture. Signal Hill, perched high above the city, offers panoramic views of the rugged coastline and the iconic Cabot Tower, a symbol of Newfoundland’s rich maritime history. As we explore further, we encounter the East Coast Trail, a 336-kilometer long coastal hiking route that winds its way through breathtaking landscapes, hidden coves, and pristine beaches. The Avalon Peninsula truly encapsulates the essence of Newfoundland and Labrador’s coastal charm.

The Labrador Region

Finally, we turn our attention to the vast and remote Labrador region. With its rugged mountains, mighty rivers, and vast tundra, this area is a paradise for nature enthusiasts seeking solitude and untouched wilderness. In the heart of Labrador lies the Mealy Mountains National Park Reserve, a place where ancient glaciers have shaped the landscape into a mesmerizing tapestry of lakes, rivers, and boreal forests. Here, caribou roam freely, and anglers can cast their lines in pristine rivers teeming with Atlantic salmon.

Did you know? The Torngat Mountains in northern Labrador are home to the highest peaks in eastern Canada, including Mount Caubvick, which stands at an impressive 1,652 meters.

From the rugged cliffs of the Great Northern Peninsula to the wild beauty of Labrador’s untamed wilderness, Newfoundland and Labrador offers a diverse range of geographical wonders that will leave any visitor in awe. Whether you are captivated by the magic of Gros Morne National Park or enchanted by the colorful streets of St. John’s, this province is a treasure trove of natural wonders waiting to be explored. So pack your bags, lace up your boots, and embark on an unforgettable journey through the captivating geography of Newfoundland and Labrador.

The History of Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador, located on the eastern coast of Canada, has a rich and fascinating history that dates back thousands of years. This province, consisting of the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador, is known for its stunning landscapes, vibrant culture, and storied past.

Indigenous Peoples:

The earliest inhabitants of Newfoundland and Labrador were the Indigenous peoples who arrived in the region around 9,000 years ago. The Maritime Archaic people were the first to settle here and were followed by the Dorset and Beothuk peoples. The Beothuk, in particular, developed a unique culture and way of life, relying heavily on hunting and gathering.

European Exploration:

European exploration of Newfoundland and Labrador began in the late 15th century when John Cabot, an Italian explorer sailing under the English flag, landed on the island in 1497. This led to subsequent expeditions by European powers, including England, France, and Portugal, who sought to establish colonies and exploit the region’s rich fishing grounds.

English and French Rivalries:

Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, Newfoundland became a battleground for English and French colonial powers. Both nations recognized the economic potential of the region’s cod fisheries, leading to intense competition and conflicts known as the French-English wars. These rivalries lasted for centuries, with control of Newfoundland changing hands between the two powers multiple times.

Permanent Settlement:

In the early 17th century, permanent settlements began to emerge in Newfoundland. The town of St. John’s, established in 1583, became one of the oldest European settlements in North America. Fishing communities along the coast also grew rapidly as European settlers realized the abundance of fish in the surrounding waters.

The Great Fire of 1892:

One of the most significant events in Newfoundland’s history was the Great Fire of 1892. This devastating fire destroyed much of St. John’s, including the majority of its wooden buildings. However, the fire also brought about positive changes, as the city was rebuilt with more modern infrastructure and fire-resistant materials.

Confederation with Canada:

After centuries of being a British colony, Newfoundland faced economic challenges in the early 20th century. In 1949, the province made the historic decision to join Canada as its tenth province. This move brought stability and access to Canada’s resources, helping Newfoundland and Labrador develop into a prosperous region.

Offshore Oil and Gas:

In recent decades, Newfoundland and Labrador experienced a significant economic boom with the discovery of offshore oil and gas reserves. The Hibernia oil field, discovered in 1979, marked the beginning of oil production in the province. Since then, the industry has grown, bringing new opportunities and wealth to the region.

Unique Culture:

Newfoundland and Labrador are renowned for their unique culture, which blends Indigenous, English, Irish, Scottish, and French influences. The province is famous for its traditional music, including lively folk songs and toe-tapping jigs. The people of Newfoundland and Labrador also have a distinct dialect known as Newfoundland English, which is characterized by its rich vocabulary and unique pronunciation.

A Titanic Connection:

Interestingly, Newfoundland played a significant role in the tragic sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912. After receiving distress signals from the sinking ship, several vessels from Newfoundland rushed to the scene to rescue survivors. The town of Halifax, Nova Scotia became a central hub for the recovery and identification of bodies. To this day, Newfoundland and Labrador maintain a strong connection to the Titanic disaster.

From its ancient Indigenous roots to its vibrant present-day culture, Newfoundland and Labrador have a captivating history that continues to shape the province. Whether exploring its breathtaking landscapes or immersing oneself in its rich traditions, this region offers a journey through time that is both enlightening and awe-inspiring.

St. John’s: The Vibrant Capital of Newfoundland and Labrador

Perched on the easternmost edge of North America, St. John’s stands as the lively capital city of Newfoundland and Labrador. Known for its colorful row houses, rugged coastline, and warm hospitality, this charming city is a captivating blend of history, culture, and natural beauty.

Wandering through the narrow streets of downtown St. John’s feels like stepping back in time. The iconic Jellybean Row houses, with their vibrant hues, create a picturesque backdrop for exploring the city. As you stroll along Water Street, the oldest street in North America, you’ll find an array of unique shops, cozy cafes, and lively pubs where you can immerse yourself in the local atmosphere.

No visit to St. John’s would be complete without a visit to Signal Hill. Standing proudly at the entrance to the city, this historic site offers breathtaking panoramic views of the Atlantic Ocean and the city below. It was here that Marconi received the first transatlantic wireless signal in 1901, forever changing global communication. Explore the Cabot Tower perched atop Signal Hill, which serves as a symbol of St. John’s resilience and history.

For those seeking a taste of Newfoundland and Labrador’s rich cultural heritage, a visit to The Rooms is a must. This striking museum and art gallery showcases the province’s art, history, and natural sciences. From ancient artifacts to contemporary masterpieces, The Rooms offers a comprehensive journey through the region’s diverse cultural tapestry.

Just outside the city lies Cape Spear, the easternmost point in North America. With its rugged cliffs and crashing waves, this windswept headland provides a dramatic backdrop for visitors. Don’t miss the chance to witness a spectacular sunrise or sunset from this enchanting location.

A short drive from St. John’s will take you to the picturesque fishing village of Quidi Vidi. Nestled in a sheltered harbor, this quaint community is home to the renowned Quidi Vidi Brewery. Take a tour and sample their award-winning craft beers while soaking in the picturesque views of the village and its famous Gut, a narrow waterway that connects the harbor to the sea.

Corner Brook: Nature’s Paradise

Situated on the western coast of Newfoundland, Corner Brook is a haven for outdoor enthusiasts and nature lovers. Surrounded by lush forests, cascading waterfalls, and towering mountains, this scenic city offers endless opportunities for adventure.

Humber Valley, just a short distance from Corner Brook, is a paradise for hikers and golfers alike. Lace up your boots and explore the numerous hiking trails that wind through ancient forests, leading to stunning viewpoints. During the winter months, the valley transforms into a winter wonderland, attracting skiers and snowboarders to its pristine slopes.

For those seeking a more laid-back experience, the tranquility of Margaret Bowater Park is not to be missed. Take a leisurely stroll along its winding paths, enjoy a picnic by the serene pond, or simply relax amidst the beauty of nature.

Just a stone’s throw from Corner Brook lies Gros Morne National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This vast wilderness showcases some of the most striking landscapes in Newfoundland and Labrador. Marvel at the towering fjords, hike through ancient forests, or take a boat tour to witness the awe-inspiring Western Brook Pond. With its diverse ecosystems and unparalleled beauty, Gros Morne National Park truly offers a glimpse into the wonders of nature.

For history buffs, a visit to the Captain James Cook Historic Site is a must. This site commemorates the famous explorer’s time in Newfoundland and Labrador and provides insight into his voyages. Explore the exhibits, stroll through the beautiful gardens, and learn about the region’s rich maritime history.

Gander: A Symbol of Hospitality

In the heart of Newfoundland and Labrador lies the vibrant town of Gander, known for its warm hospitality and rich aviation history. This charming community played a pivotal role in the transatlantic aviation industry and continues to welcome visitors with open arms.

Gander International Airport, once a vital refueling stop for transatlantic flights, holds a special place in aviation history. The North Atlantic Aviation Museum offers a fascinating glimpse into the airport’s past, showcasing artifacts, photographs, and stories of the many pioneers who graced its runways.

Immerse yourself in Gander’s vibrant arts scene by visiting the Joseph R. Smallwood Arts and Culture Centre. This multipurpose facility hosts a variety of performances, art exhibitions, and cultural events throughout the year, showcasing the region’s talent and creativity.

If you’re a nature lover, be sure to explore Cobb’s Pond Rotary Park. This tranquil oasis offers picturesque walking trails, serene ponds, and an abundance of wildlife. Take a moment to soak in the peacefulness of nature or enjoy a picnic amidst the park’s natural beauty.

Gander’s hospitality shines brightly in the annual Gander Day celebrations. Held on the first Saturday in July, this festive event brings together locals and visitors alike for a day filled with live music, delicious food, and a sense of community spirit.

Labrador City: A Gateway to Untamed Wilderness

Situated in the rugged wilderness of western Labrador, Labrador City serves as a gateway to the untamed beauty of the region. With its vast forests, pristine lakes, and abundant wildlife, this city offers a unique opportunity to connect with nature.

Labrador City is a haven for outdoor enthusiasts, offering a range of activities throughout the year. Explore the numerous hiking trails that crisscross the surrounding wilderness, leading to breathtaking viewpoints and hidden gems. In the winter months, strap on your snowshoes or cross-country skis and venture into a winter wonderland.

Wabush Lake, just a short distance from Labrador City, provides the perfect setting for water-based activities. Whether you’re fishing for trophy-sized trout, kayaking on its tranquil waters, or simply enjoying a lakeside picnic, this pristine lake offers a serene escape from the hustle and bustle of everyday life.

Experience the unique history and culture of the indigenous Innu people by visiting the Menihek Interpretation Centre. Gain insights into their traditional way of life, marvel at their intricate craftsmanship, and learn about their deep connection to the land.

Labrador City also hosts various events and festivals throughout the year, allowing visitors to immerse themselves in the local culture. From music festivals to sporting events, there’s always something happening in this vibrant community.

Whether you’re seeking adventure in the great outdoors or looking to connect with the rich cultural heritage of Newfoundland and Labrador, the cities of this province offer a myriad of experiences. From the colorful streets of St. John’s to the untamed wilderness of Labrador City, each city has its own unique charm that is sure to captivate visitors from near and far.

Newfoundland and Labrador: A Hidden Gem for Adventure Seekers

If you’re an adventurous traveler with a penchant for stunning landscapes, rich history, and vibrant culture, then Newfoundland and Labrador is a destination that should be at the top of your travel bucket list. Located on the easternmost edge of North America, this province is an untamed wilderness waiting to be explored.

1. Breathtaking Landscapes:

Prepare to be awestruck by the province’s diverse landscapes. From the towering cliffs of Gros Morne National Park to the pristine fjords of Western Brook Pond, there’s no shortage of natural wonders to behold. Hiking enthusiasts can challenge themselves on the iconic Long Range Traverse or marvel at the otherworldly beauty of the Tablelands, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

  • The Iceberg Alley, off the coast of Newfoundland, offers a unique opportunity to witness these magnificent frozen giants up close.
  • Take a boat tour through the Witless Bay Ecological Reserve and witness thousands of puffins, whales, and seals in their natural habitat.
  • Explore the rugged coastline of the Labrador Coastal Drive, dotted with charming fishing villages and lighthouses.

2. Rich History:

Newfoundland and Labrador have a captivating historical background that dates back centuries. The province is known for its connection to Vikings, as L’Anse aux Meadows is the only authenticated Norse site in North America. Step back in time and immerse yourself in the Viking culture as you explore the archaeological remains and reconstructed dwellings.

  1. Visit Signal Hill National Historic Site in St. John’s, where Marconi received the first transatlantic wireless signal in 1901.
  2. Discover the story of John Cabot’s voyage to North America in 1497 at Cape Bonavista Lighthouse Provincial Historic Site.
  3. Explore the charming fishing villages along the Irish Loop, where Irish settlers left their mark on the region’s culture and traditions.

3. Vibrant Culture:

Newfoundland and Labrador are renowned for their warm hospitality and rich cultural heritage. The province is home to a thriving arts scene, with talented musicians, writers, and artists showcasing their work in galleries and festivals throughout the year.

  • Experience the lively atmosphere of George Street in St. John’s, known as the oldest street in North America and a hub for live music and entertainment.
  • Indulge in traditional Newfoundland cuisine, with dishes like fish and brewis, toutons, and Jiggs dinner that showcase the province’s culinary traditions.
  • Witness the vibrant tradition of mummering during the holiday season, where locals dress in disguises and go door-to-door for food and drink.

4. Wildlife Encounters:

For nature enthusiasts, Newfoundland and Labrador offer incredible opportunities to observe wildlife in their natural habitats.

  1. Take a boat tour to witness humpback whales breaching the surface of the water or catch a glimpse of elusive orcas along the coast.
  2. Visit the Northern Gannet colony on Cape St. Mary’s Ecological Reserve, one of the most accessible seabird nesting sites in North America.
  3. Explore the remote wilderness of Torngat Mountains National Park, home to polar bears, caribou, and arctic foxes.

With its untamed beauty, rich culture, and exciting adventures, Newfoundland and Labrador offer a unique and unforgettable travel experience. Whether you’re hiking through its rugged landscapes, immersing yourself in its history, or encountering wildlife up close, this hidden gem of a province will leave you in awe and longing for more.

Attractions of Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador, the easternmost province of Canada, is a land of stunning natural beauty and rich cultural heritage. From its rugged coastline to its quaint fishing villages, this province offers a plethora of attractions that are sure to captivate any visitor. Whether you are a nature lover, history enthusiast, or simply seeking a unique experience, Newfoundland and Labrador has something for everyone.

Gros Morne National Park: One of the province’s most renowned attractions, Gros Morne National Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site that showcases the awe-inspiring wonders of nature. With its towering fjords, ancient glaciers, and striking cliffs, this park is a paradise for hikers and outdoor enthusiasts. Explore the Tablelands, a unique geological formation that mimics the surface of Mars, or take a boat tour to witness the majestic beauty of Western Brook Pond.

Signal Hill: Located in the capital city of St. John’s, Signal Hill is steeped in history and offers breathtaking views of the Atlantic Ocean. Here, you can visit Cabot Tower, a historic site that commemorates the first transatlantic wireless communication. Take a walk along the trails and soak in the panoramic vistas or visit the nearby Johnson Geo Centre to delve deeper into the geological wonders of the region.

L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site: Step back in time at L’Anse aux Meadows, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that brings Viking history to life. Explore the reconstructed Norse buildings and learn about the Viking settlement dating back to 1000 AD. Immerse yourself in the Viking culture through interactive exhibits and guided tours, gaining insight into the fascinating tales of exploration and discovery.

Terra Nova National Park: Nestled on the northeast coast of Newfoundland, Terra Nova National Park is a haven for outdoor enthusiasts. With its pristine forests, meandering rivers, and rugged coastline, this park offers endless opportunities for hiking, kayaking, and wildlife spotting. Keep your eyes peeled for moose, bald eagles, and even elusive lynx as you traverse the diverse landscapes of this natural wonderland.

Torngat Mountains National Park: For the ultimate wilderness experience, venture to Torngat Mountains National Park, a remote and untamed region that encompasses towering peaks, deep fjords, and sprawling glaciers. This park provides a unique opportunity to immerse yourself in Inuit culture and learn about the traditions and history of the indigenous people who call this land home. Witness polar bears frolicking on icebergs or marvel at the magnificent Northern Lights dancing across the night sky.

Iceberg Alley: As the name suggests, Newfoundland and Labrador is renowned for its breathtaking icebergs that drift down from the Arctic. The best time to catch a glimpse of these colossal icy giants is between April and June when they make their way along the province’s coast. Take a boat tour or watch from land as these dazzling ice sculptures create a spectacle that is both humbling and awe-inspiring.

Whether you are exploring ancient Viking settlements, hiking through dramatic landscapes, or simply taking in the beauty of icebergs, Newfoundland and Labrador offers a truly unique and unforgettable experience. With its rich history, vibrant culture, and breathtaking natural wonders, this province is a gem waiting to be discovered by intrepid travelers. So pack your bags and embark on an adventure that will leave you with memories to last a lifetime.

The Best Time to Travel to Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador, the easternmost province of Canada, is a land of astonishing natural beauty, rugged coastlines, and vibrant culture. From towering icebergs and dramatic fjords to charming fishing villages and abundant wildlife, this province offers an unforgettable experience for travelers. However, choosing the perfect time to visit can greatly enhance your trip and allow you to make the most of everything this stunning destination has to offer.

1. Summer (June to August)

Summer is undoubtedly the most popular time to visit Newfoundland and Labrador. With longer days and milder temperatures, this season brings the province to life. From June to August, you can expect pleasant weather, with temperatures ranging between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F). This is the ideal time for outdoor activities such as hiking, kayaking, and whale watching.

  • Explore Gros Morne National Park: This UNESCO World Heritage Site is a must-visit during the summer months. Immerse yourself in its stunning landscapes, hike the challenging trails, and witness breathtaking views of fjords, mountains, and lush forests.
  • Witness Icebergs: During summer, the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador becomes a playground for massive icebergs drifting south from the Arctic. Take a boat tour or hike along the coastline to witness these majestic ice formations up close.
  • Experience St. John’s: The capital city comes alive during summer with vibrant festivals, live music, and bustling farmers’ markets. Explore the colorful row houses of Jellybean Row and enjoy fresh seafood at one of the many waterfront restaurants.

2. Fall (September to October)

Fall in Newfoundland and Labrador is a magical time when the landscapes transform into a kaleidoscope of fiery colors. The weather remains pleasant, with temperatures averaging between 10°C and 20°C (50°F and 68°F). This season offers unique experiences and fewer crowds.

  • Witness Whale Migration: September marks the start of the whale migration season, with humpbacks and other species returning to the coast. Take a boat tour to witness these magnificent creatures in their natural habitat before they head south for the winter.
  • Enjoy Foliage: The province’s forests and hiking trails explode with vibrant hues during fall. Embark on a scenic drive along the Viking Trail or explore the East Coast Trail to witness the stunning autumn foliage.
  • Attend Cultural Festivals: Fall is festival season in Newfoundland and Labrador. Experience the lively atmosphere of the Fish, Fun, and Folk Festival in St. John’s or the Bonavista Biennale, a celebration of contemporary art held in various locations throughout the Bonavista Peninsula.

3. Winter (November to March)

While winter in Newfoundland and Labrador can be harsh, it offers a unique and enchanting experience for adventurous travelers. Temperatures range from -5°C to 0°C (23°F to 32°F), and snow blankets the landscapes, creating a picturesque winter wonderland.

  • Iceberg and Whale Watching: Despite the chilly temperatures, icebergs can still be spotted along the coast during winter. Take a scenic drive along Iceberg Alley or embark on a boat tour to witness these frozen giants. You might even catch a glimpse of whales that stay in the area during winter.
  • Experience Winter Festivals: Embrace the winter spirit by attending festivals like the St. John’s Winter Carnival or the Labrador Winter Games. Enjoy snow sculpting competitions, dog sledding races, live music, and traditional food.
  • Marvel at Frozen Landscapes: Explore the stunning landscapes of Gros Morne National Park transformed by a blanket of snow. Try snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, or even snowmobiling to immerse yourself in the winter wilderness.

4. Spring (April to May)

Spring in Newfoundland and Labrador is a time of renewal and awakening. While the weather remains cool, with temperatures ranging from 0°C to 10°C (32°F to 50°F), this season offers unique experiences and the opportunity to witness wildlife and blooming flora.

  • Birdwatching: As spring arrives, millions of seabirds return to the province’s shores for nesting season. Visit Cape St. Mary’s Ecological Reserve or Witless Bay Ecological Reserve to witness the impressive colonies of puffins, gannets, and kittiwakes.
  • Iceberg Season Begins: April marks the beginning of iceberg season, offering a chance to witness these marvels of nature as they make their way along the coast. Take a boat tour or hike to coastal viewpoints for unforgettable views.
  • Trout Fishing: Spring is an excellent time for trout fishing in Newfoundland and Labrador. With rivers and lakes thawing after winter, avid anglers can enjoy world-class fishing experiences amidst breathtaking scenery.

No matter the time of year you choose to visit Newfoundland and Labrador, this province will captivate you with its natural wonders, rich history, and warm hospitality. Plan your trip according to your preferences and immerse yourself in the magic of this remarkable destination.

Living in Newfoundland and Labrador


  • Stunning natural beauty with rugged coastlines, fjords, and picturesque landscapes
  • Abundance of outdoor activities including hiking, fishing, and whale watching
  • Tight-knit and friendly communities with a strong sense of local pride
  • Lower cost of living compared to many other provinces in Canada
  • Rich cultural heritage and vibrant arts scene
  • Opportunities for employment in industries such as fishing, oil and gas, and tourism
  • Access to fresh seafood and traditional Newfoundland and Labrador cuisine
  • Relatively low crime rates and a safe environment
  • Unique experiences like iceberg viewing and witnessing the Northern Lights


  • Harsh winters with heavy snowfall and cold temperatures
  • Limited job opportunities in certain fields, leading to higher unemployment rates
  • Isolation from major cities and limited access to certain amenities and services
  • Challenges in transportation due to remote locations and unpredictable weather conditions
  • Higher cost of imported goods and limited shopping options
  • Limited healthcare facilities and specialized medical services
  • Shorter tourist season compared to other popular destinations
  • Potential for feeling disconnected from the rest of Canada due to geographical distance
  • Limited cultural diversity and fewer opportunities for multicultural experiences